1) Throughout the border state of Punjab, whether in villages or cities, drugs have become a scourge. Opium is prevalent, refined as heroin or other illegal substances. Schoolboys sometimes eat small black balls of opium paste, with tea, before classes. Synthetic drugs are popular among those too poor to afford heroin.
2) The scale of the problem, if impossible to quantify precisely, is undeniably immense and worrisome. India has one of the worldâ€™s youngest populations, a factor that is expected to power future economic growth, yet Punjab is already a reminder of the demographic risks of a glut of young people. An overwhelming majority of addicts are between the ages of 15 and 35, according to one study, with many of them unemployed and frustrated by unmet expectations.
3) For the Punjab government, the problem is hardly unknown. Private drug treatment centers, some run by quacks, have proliferated across the state, and treatment wards in government hospitals have seen a surge in patients. Three years ago, a state health official warned in a court affidavit that Punjab risked losing a whole generation to drugs. Roughly 60 percent of all illicit drugs confiscated in India are seized in Punjab.
4) Yet when Punjab held state elections this year, the candidates rarely spoke about drug abuse. In fact, Indiaâ€™s Election Commission said that some political workers were actually giving away drugs to try to buy votes. More than 110 pounds of heroin and hundreds of thousands of bottles of bootleg liquor were seized in raids. During the elections, party workers in some districts distributed coupons that voters could redeem at pharmacies.
5) Punjabâ€™s reluctance to treat the drug situation as a full-blown crisis is partly because the state government itself is dependent on revenue from alcohol sales. Roughly 8,000 government liquor stores operate in Punjab, charging a tax on every bottle â€” an excise that represents one of the governmentâ€™s largest sources of revenue. Indiaâ€™s comptroller found that liquor consumption per person in Punjab rose 59 percent between 2005 and 2010.
6) A sociologist in Amritsar, surveyed 600 drug addicts in rural and urban areas of Punjab and found that they were usually young, poor and unemployed. He said that most villages did not have health clinics but did have three or four drugstores, which often made sizable profits selling pills and other synthetic drugs to addicts who cannot afford heroin.
7) Opium has a long history in Punjab, and was commonly and legally consumed here before India and Pakistan gained independence in 1947. Today, Punjab is a primary gateway for opiates smuggled into India from Pakistan and Afghanistan. Opium is also grown legally in India for medicinal purposes, and some of the crop arrives in Punjab on the black market.
8) The problem is prevalent in middle-class enclaves, where some users are hooked on heroin. One impoverished neighborhood of Amritsar, called Maqboolpura, is known as the Village of Widows â€” because so many young men have died of drug abuse.
9) In Kazikot Village, about a two-hour drive from Amritsar, a local nongovernmental organization tries to prevent the spread of H.I.V. by regularly distributing clean syringes to addicts. The groupâ€™s workers say there are 48 hard-core addicts in the village (out of more than 2,000 people) but that many other people use drugs. Government officials have sponsored â€œcampsâ€ here, with health officials providing antidrug information or trying to persuade addicts to undergo treatment â€” neither of which, villagers say, has been successful.
Drew Parker Mrs. Edwards 15, October, 2012 Spch 102 Rafael Nadal Introduction: A. ) Known by many as â€œRafaâ€, Rafael Nadal is one of the top-ranked tennis players in the world today. B. ) He has a combined record of 120-43, and doesnâ€™t seem to have any weaknesses and is compared to tennis legends like Andre Agassi and Bjorn Borg. C. ) His childhood, and his achievements this far has made him who he is today, and as stated on Forbes. com, â€œNadal is the number 16 highest paid athlete with endorsements worth 25 million dollars. â€ Transition: Letâ€™s start with his roots. Body: Main point 1 â€“Nadal was born in Majorca, Spain on June 3rd, 1986. He began playing tennis and soccer at the age of 3, being coached both by his Uncle Toni. According to The New York Times, â€œthere was a lot more soccer than tennis in Nadalâ€™s childhood. â€œ His Uncle Toni was a top soccer player for Spainâ€™s F. C Barcelona, and with his experience he trained Rafa to be a great soccer player as well as tennis star. At the age of 11 he decided to quit soccer and totally focus on tennis. He is naturally right handed, but his Uncle Toni forced him to play with his left hand because you can generate more spin that way.By playing left handed it gives Nadal a supreme advantage during his serve. When people serve right handed the ball bounces away from the player, and when people serve left handed the ball spins right into the opponentsâ€™ midsection. With majority of the tennis stars being right handed, it makes things very difficult for an opponent of Nadalsâ€™ while returning serves. At the age of 15, Rafael was one of the highest ranked juniors in the world, and he jumped into the proâ€™s becoming one of the youngest players ever to win an ATP tour match. He achieved this when beating Ramon Delgado in Majorca 2002.This made him one 1 out of only 9 players to ever win an ATP match before the age of 16. Transition: All of his accomplishments at an early age is a precursor for whatâ€™s to come. Main point 2 â€“ Nadal has won many tournaments and many awards throughout his career. In 2003 at the age of 16 he was the youngest player ever to be ranked in the ATPâ€™s top 100. In the same year he won the ATP Newcomer of the Year award. He was also the youngest player ever to make it to a third round in a Grand Slam at Wimbledon at the age of 16. In 2005, at the age of 19 Nadal had one of the best accomplishments of his career at that point. Atptour. om states, â€œ Nadal was the first teenager to win a Grand Slam since Pete Sampras in 1990. â€ He won the French Open that year and had a combined 25 match-winning streak at the end of the year. Tom Oldfield stated in his book Rafael Nadal: The Biography, â€œ Nadal had been known as a clay court specialist since playing in his first tournaments in 2001. â€ So it wasnâ€™t a surprise that he would win the French Open. Nadal has won 71 total singles titles, and 11 doubles titles totaling in 82 career tournament wins. Sports Illustrated has Nadal down for winning 11 grand slams to this day, which ties him for 4th on the all time list.He is behind all-time greats like Andre Agassi, Pete Sampras, and Roger Federer. He is tied with another German great Bjorn Borg He has won 7 French Opens, 1 U. S. open, 1 Australian Open, and 2 Wimbledon Opens. He also won the Olympic gold in 2008 making him one of the most well rounded players in the game. He is only 23 years old at this point, and has done much more than other tennis players do in their whole career. No one may come close to matching the number of Grand Slams he could end up winning. Transition: All of these achievements could lead to nothing more than some serious cash flow. Main point 3-Rafa is one of the highest paid athletes in the world. According to celebnetworth. org Rafa has sponsorships with, â€œ Kia motors, Babolat, Nike, Bacardi, Richard Mille, and Armani. â€ His Nike endorsement is worth 21 million per year. With all of these endorsements and his career earnings, Nadal is at a net worth of around 60 million dollars per year making him the 16th ranked highest paid athletes. This puts him on the list of names along with Michael Phelps, Lebron James, Alex Rodriguez, and other highly paid athletes. In 2012 he has already gained 26 million in endorsements and 34 million in annual earnings. Transition:This takes us to our conclusion. Conclusion: A. ) Weâ€™ve been over Rafaelâ€™s childhood, his achievements, and his earnings. By doing this we see how much he means to the game of tennis. He was one of the youngest players ever to win a Grand Slam, and is endorsed by names like Nike, Babolat, and Armani, which only endorse the best athletes. B. ) He is currently the 16th highest paid athlete and the future looks bright for Nadal. At a current age of only 23, Nadal has a chance to become one of the greatest of all times, and at the pace heâ€™s going he has a great opportunity to beat Federerâ€™s record holding 17 Grand Slams.
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